What is levator function?
The function of the levator palpebrae superioris muscle is to raise the upper eyelid and to maintain the upper eyelid position. The levator palpebrae superioris muscle origin is the periosteum of the lesser wing of the sphenoid bone, superior to the optic foramen.
What is a levator repair?
It is recommended for people with ptosis who have strong levator muscle function. In an external approach, the oculoplastic surgeon makes an incision in the skin of the eyelid. The surgeon then repositions the attachment of the levator muscle by stitching it to the tarsus, which is connective tissue in the eyelid.
What is a levator plication?
Levator aponeurosis plication is an effective, safe, and simple procedure to correct upper eyelid ptosis. It easily can be combined with many facial cosmetic surgery procedures.
What is normal levator function?
Levator function, which is the distance the eyelid travel from downgaze to upgaze while the frontalis muscle is held inactive at the brow. A measurement of greater than 10 mm is considered excellent, whereas 0-5 mm is considered poor. Presence of eyelid crease and its height.
How is a levator advancement and levator resection performed?
Levator advancement and levator resection are among the most commonly performed external repairs used today. In levator aponeurosis surgery a transcutaneous incision is made at the lid crease and dissection through the orbicularis muscle is performed.
How is the aponeurosis of the levator muscle advanced?
External (transcutaneous) levator advancement: Through an upper eyelid crease incision, the levator aponeurosis is surgically dissected from the tarsus and superiorly from the overlying orbital fat. A partial thickness suture is passed through the tarsus and through the levator muscle, resulting in an advancement of the levator muscle.
How are levator advancements used to treat ptosis?
With elevation of the eyebrow, the eye opens, and the orbicularis oculi is used to close the eye. A levator advancement or resection results in shortening of the levator aponeurosis and muscle. The levator can be approached from an anterior or posterior direction. [ 16, 17]
How is levator function related to frontalis function?
Levator function (upper eyelid excursion): The distance from the upper eyelid margin in downgaze to upgaze with frontalis muscle function neutralized. Normal eyelid excursion is 12-17 mm. Hering’s law of equal innervation: The levator muscles obey Hering’s law of equal innervation, meaning they are innervated symmetrically.