What is transitional vertebrae in dogs?

What is transitional vertebrae in dogs?

Transitional vertebrae are congenitally malformed vertebrae situated at junction points between distinct segments of the spine where the vertebrae change shape, as from the ribcage to the lower back or lower back to the hips. This last, the lumbo-sacral region, is the place most transitional vertebrae occur in dogs.

What causes lumbosacral transitional vertebrae?

Lumbosacral transitional vertebra (LSTV) is a congenital anomaly of the spine that arises because of mutations in the Hox genes, giving rise to sacralization (fifth lumbar vertebra shows assimilation to the sacrum) and lumbarization (first sacral vertebra shows lumbar configuration).

Can a transitional vertebrae cause pain?

A transitional vertebrae transverse process is typically enlarged and often looks like a fake joint which touches the pelvis. This fake joint between this enlarged transverse process and the sacrum, if inflamed, can cause low back pain.

How common is a transitional vertebrae?

Lumbosacral transitional vertebrae (LSTV) are a relatively common variant and can be seen in ~25% (range 15-35%) of the general population 1-3.

What causes lumbosacral transitional vertebrae ( LTV ) in dogs?

It occurs when the point of contact of the pelvis with the vertebral column is slightly cranial or caudal to its normal position. The resulting formative stimulus on the vertebral ossification centers, sagittally still separated, causes the various morphologies seen in LTV including the asymmetric variations.

What does transitional lumbosacral vertebra ( LSTV ) stand for?

Lumbosacral transitional vertebrae (LSTV) are congenital spinal anomalies, in which an elongated transverse process of the last lumbar vertebra fuses with varying degree to the “first” sacral segment.

How is the prevalence of lumbosacral transitional vertebrae determined?

The prevalence of lumbosacral transitional vertebrae (LTV) was determined by reviewing the pelvic radiographs of 4000 medium- and large-breed dogs of 144 breeds routinely screened for canine hip dysplasia. An LTV was seen in 138 (3.5%) dogs.

What does lumbarization of sacral vertebra 1 mean?

Lumbarization of sacral vertebra 1, seen as 6 vertebrae that do not connect to ribs. Lumbarization is an anomaly in the spine. It is defined by the nonfusion of the first and second segments of the sacrum. The lumbar spine subsequently appears to have six vertebrae or segments, not five.