What is drug resistance in malaria?
Antimalarial drug resistance is the ability of a parasite strain to survive and/or to multiply despite the administration and absorption of medicine given in doses equal to or higher than those usually recommended.
How does malaria become drug resistant?
Malaria parasite mutations that inhibit the endocytoic appetite for a host’s red blood cells may render them resistant to artemisinin, a widely used frontline antimalarial drug, according to a new study, which reveals a key molecular mechanism of drug resistance.
Is malaria a drug resistant disease?
The development of resistance to drugs poses one of the greatest threats to malaria control and results in increased malaria morbidity and mortality. Resistance to currently available antimalarial drugs has been confirmed in only two of the four human malaria parasite species, Plasmodium falciparum and P.
What is parasite drug resistance?
Antiparasitic resistance is the genetic ability of parasites to survive treatment with an antiparasitic drug that was generally effective against those parasites in the past.
Which genotype is resistant to malaria?
Sickle cell trait (genotype HbAS) confers a high degree of resistance to severe and complicated malaria [1–4] yet the precise mechanism remains unknown.
How is falciparum malaria treated?
Approved therapies for treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in the United States include atovaquone–proguanil, quinine (a 3-day course plus a 1-week course of doxycycline or, in children, clindamycin), and mefloquine.
What type of mutation is malaria resistance?
The sickle-cell allele is widely known as a variant that causes red blood cells to be deformed into a sickle shape when deoxygenated in AS heterozygotes, in which A indicates the non-mutant form of the β-globin gene, and also provides resistance to malaria in AS heterozygotes.
How is malaria resistant diagnosed?
Molecular characterization: For some drugs (chloroquine, sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and similar drugs, atovaquone), molecular markers have been identified that confer resistance. Molecular techniques, such as PCR or gene sequencing can identify these markers in blood taken from malaria-infected patients.
What is parasitic resistance effect?
Resistive effects in solar cells reduce the efficiency of the solar cell by dissipating power in the resistances. The most common parasitic resistances are series resistance and shunt resistance.
How does blood group O protect against malaria?
Individuals with blood type O are able to generate antibodies to counteract PfEMP1, which disrupts the rosettes and prevents these individuals developing severe malaria.
Are there any antimalarial drugs that are resistant to P falciparum?
P. falciparum has also developed resistance to nearly all of the other currently available antimalarial drugs, such as sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine, mefloquine, halofantrine, and quinine.
When did chloroquine resistance spread to the world?
Drug-resistant P. falciparum. Chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum first developed independently in three to four areas in Southeast Asia, Oceania, and South America in the late 1950s and early 1960s. Since then, chloroquine resistance has spread to nearly all areas of the world where falciparum malaria is transmitted.
Are there any parasites that are resistant to chloroquine?
P. vivax resistance to chloroquine has also now been identified in Southeast Asia, on the Indian subcontinent, and in South America. Vivax malaria parasites, particularly from Oceania, show greater resistance to primaquine than P. vivax isolates from other regions of the world.
Are there any resistance to chloroquine in Madagascar?
P. vivax resistance to chloroquine has also now been identified in Southeast Asia, Ethiopia, and Madagascar.Isolated reports have suggested chloroquine-resistance P. vivax in other countries and regions, but further evaluation is needed.