How to calculate water footprint of rice?

How to calculate water footprint of rice?

Water Footprint of Rice Production The total water use (m3/year) for rice production in each country is calculated by multiplying the national harvested area of rice crops (ha/year) with the corresponding depth of water (mm/year) used in paddy fields.

What is the water footprint of rice?

The global water footprint of rice production is estimated to be 784 billion m3/yr. The ratio of green to blue water varies greatly, both over time and space.

Is rice the largest water footprint?

For plant foods, rice is the most water-intensive crop, consuming about 21% of the total volume of water used for all field crops. Wheat is the second highest crop for water use. Beef and pork production have the highest green water footprint among animal food sources.

What can water footprint be calculated for?

The water footprint measures the amount of water used to produce each of the goods and services we use. It can be measured for a single process, such as growing rice, for a product, such as a pair of jeans, for the fuel we put in our car, or for an entire multi-national company.

What is the water footprint of rice production?

The global water footprint of rice production is 784 km 3/year with an average of 1325 m /t which is 48% green, 44% blue, and 8% grey. There is also 1025 m3/t of percolation in rice production. The ratio of green to blue water varies greatly over time and space.

How is rice grown in a sustainable way?

Sustainable Methods to Grow Rice. Rice’s extraordinary water footprint is primarily owed to the fact that rice is normally covered with water. This helps suppress weed growth, but it also uses enormous quantities of water and increases methane emissions when plant matter decomposes in flooded fields.

Why does rice use a lot of water?

Rice’s extraordinary water footprint is primarily owed to the fact that rice is normally covered with water. This helps suppress weed growth, but it also uses enormous quantities of water and increases methane emissions when plant matter decomposes in flooded fields. Methods are however now emerging to limit rice’s water footprint.

How to calculate the crop water requirement for rice?

As CROPWAT 4 ( FAO, 1992) is not suitable to calculate the crop water requirement for rice ( Clarke et al., 1998 ), we have used it only to get the values of ET c and the available effective rainfall for a time step of 5 days.