What are some defenses of plants?
The first line of defense in plants is an intact and impenetrable barrier composed of bark and a waxy cuticle. Both protect plants against herbivores. Other adaptations against herbivores include hard shells, thorns (modified branches), and spines (modified leaves).
What are 2 types of plant defenses?
There are two main types of plant defenses: constitutive and induced.
- Constitutive – A constitutive defense is one that is always present in the plant.
- Induced – An induced defense is a temporary defense that is targeted to defend against an area of the plant where it has been attacked or injured.
What are indirect plant defenses?
Indirect defense includes all traits that by themselves do not have significant direct impact on the attacking herbivores, but can attract natural enemies of the herbivores and thus reduce plant loss. Identified plant volatiles include terpenes, nitrogenous compounds, and indoles.
What is an example of a chemical plant defense?
Some of the examples of chemical defenses are: Production of Latex (Calotropis gigantia), Production of Alkaloids like Nicotine, Caffine, Morphine, Cocaine etc. These alkaloids will have Pharmacological affects on Humans and Animals when they consume them.
What are the different types of plant defenses?
There are two main types of plant defenses: constitutive and induced. Constitutive – A constitutive defense is one that is always present in the plant. Most plant defenses are constitutive. Induced – An induced defense is a temporary defense that is targeted to defend against an area of the plant where it has been attacked or injured.
How are systemically induced defences common to all plants?
Systemically induced defences are at least in some cases the result of changes in the transcription rates of genes in a plant. Genes involved in this process may differ between species, but common to all plants is that systemically induced defences occur as a result of changes in gene expression.
How are inducible defenses affect the fitness of herbivores?
First, it may reduce the chance that attacking insects adapt to plant defenses. Simply, inducible defenses cause variations in the defense constituents of a plant, thereby making the plant a more unpredictable environment for insect herbivores. This variability has an important effect on the fitness and behaviour of herbivores.
How are idioblasts important to the defense of plants?
Idioblasts (“crazy cells”) help protect plants against herbivory because they contain toxic chemicals or sharp crystals that tear the mouthparts of insects and mammals as they feed. There are many classes of idioblasts including pigmented cells, sclereids, crystalliferous cells, and silica cells.